High cost and low efficiency Xinjiang logistics development needs to break through the bottleneck

Logistics is the artery and basic industry of modern economic development. Xinjiang is located in the hinterland of Asia and Europe, and it is also a bridgehead opening to the west of China. It is adjacent to eight countries and has 29 ports open to the outside world, 17 of which are open to the outside world. In the border area, it has the advantage of building a logistics center based on international logistics and the unique geographic advantages of Donglian West. However, for a long time, Xinjiang is far from the inland developed provinces and has inherent disadvantages such as relatively weak logistics infrastructure, and the development of the logistics industry is restricted. If Xinjiang logistics industry wants to achieve long-term development, it must break the bottleneck that restricts development.

Road transportation needs to break the cost bottleneck

The high cost of hard road traffic in Xinjiang stems from low logistics efficiency.

In order to improve the efficiency of road transport in Xinjiang, in addition to improving the construction of an information platform, it is necessary to build a logistics network in Xinjiang, which is supported by important nodes. Speaking of road transport, many people think of the concept of “distance transport”, which has been transported for a long time. Distance from the distance has always been people's impression of Xinjiang road transport "hard injuries", whether it is inter-provincial or intra-provincial road transport, Xinjiang's haul distance is generally longer than the inland provinces, so Xinjiang logistics industry is faced with long distances and Lead to a high cost of difficulties. Actually, this is not a real problem that plagues the development of road transport in Xinjiang. According to Shan Xiaohan, secretary-general of the Autonomous Region Logistics Industry Association, long transportation distance will not significantly increase transportation costs, but will also reduce the unit price of ton-km for road transport because of the transportation process. The cost is fixed, and the longer the distance, the lower the cost per kilometer.

According to estimates by experts, in 2012, Xinjiang's road cargo volume was 61.85 million tons, an increase of 10.5% year-on-year, of which 49.71 million tons were cargo traffic on and out of Xinjiang, and road transport accounted for 89.8% of the total transport volume. Road transport has been Become the most important logistics and transportation method in Xinjiang.

In the same year, the total logistics cost of Xinjiang's total society accounted for about 22% of GDP, which was nearly 4 percentage points higher than the national level. In the same period, the empty-load rate of highways in Urumqi was 40%, and it was as high as 60% in the northern and southern parts of the country. The average level in the country was 35%, while in Europe it was 5%, and the efficiency of road transportation was low. This was particularly serious in Xinjiang.

Xinjiang Tianshun Supply Chain Co., Ltd. has been engaged in road transport for nearly 10 years. Wang Lu, deputy general manager of the company, said that low road transport efficiency is a common problem for road transport companies in the country. This is in contrast to the current low level and large-scale logistics informationization in China. The weak degree of specialization has a direct link. Low transportation efficiency not only causes waste of transportation resources, but also leads to lower-end competition in the logistics industry.

According to Wang Lu’s analysis, from the perspective of the company, low transportation efficiency will lead to higher transportation costs. In the fierce market competition, excessively high costs will constantly crush the profits of enterprises, thus affecting the company’s choice of transportation business, and some of its own transportation costs are lower. High areas will lack transportation resources and increase the irrational distribution of transportation resources. At the same time, too high transportation costs will indirectly lead to a decline in transportation services and quality, and will pull the entire industry into low-cost vicious competition.

Shan Xiaohan said that the important reason for the low transport efficiency is the lag in the construction of logistics information platform in our region. Simply put, the transport capacity has not been effectively organized, and the transport companies and market information have been asymmetrical, and empty vehicles often occur. The region is vast. If only a single linear logistics service is carried out, it will cause serious waste of logistics resources.

It is not difficult to see that the high cost of road transport in Xinjiang is actually due to low logistics efficiency. Hu Zheng, vice president of China Merchants Group Co., Ltd., believes that in order to improve the efficiency of road transport in Xinjiang, besides improving the construction of information platform, it is necessary to build a logistics network of Xinjiang Highway supported by important nodes, and establish a key network node to radiate a certain area. , The cargo of this area will be assembled to this node, and then the redistribution of the source of assembly will be carried out through the overall route of the goods, so that the scale and economy of logistics and distribution will be saved, so as to save the logistics cost.

Railway transportation needs to break the bottleneck of transport capacity

The inequality in the goods entering and leaving Xinjiang has also caused the railway's capacity to move in and out of Xinjiang to be unbalanced.

Xinjiang should build a large modern logistics channel with the basic support of railways.

According to estimates by experts, in the past year, Xinjiang railway freight volume was 69.32 million tons, an increase of 0.4% over the previous year; of which, Xinjiang had 49.71 million tons of cargo transported. From the point of view of the volume of rail freight, there was no obvious growth, which was basically the same as in 2011. At the same time, in terms of total amount, it was far less than the volume of road transport. Rail transport gives people the illusion of stopping development.

According to analysis by industry experts, based on the design and carrying capacity of the railways currently entering and leaving Xinjiang, the maximum amount of freight that the railway can bring to Xinjiang is 120 million tons. The actual carrying capacity of the railway is close to 60% of the maximum capacity, and the upside is limited. The imbalance in the number of trips into and out of Xinjiang makes it more difficult to use the limited upside. This problem stems from the imbalance of goods entering and leaving Xinjiang. Every year, 70% of train trips in rail transportation are carried out from Xinjiang, while only 30% are sent from the mainland to Xinjiang, especially in large-scale cotton and tomato markets in Xinjiang. When a large amount of Sinotrans was needed, this contradiction became more prominent. The railway department had to transport empty vehicles to transport goods in Xinjiang, wasting a lot of resources.

The number of cars entering Xinjiang is small, and there will not be too many cars out of Xinjiang. If we want to dig up railway transportation capacity, we have to specially empty the car to carry Xinjiang cargo out, which greatly reduces the efficiency of railway transportation.

Although Xinjiang railway transportation faces difficulties in transport capacity, it is still an important logistics method in Xinjiang. Xinjiang is a large resource area and a large agricultural region, and it has a large demand for bulk logistics. In 2012, coal, petroleum, iron and steel, ore, building materials, and agricultural capital products accounted for 71.22% of the total railway shipments in the region. The railway is an important force for the transportation of large cargoes in Xinjiang.

Hu Zheng believes that Xinjiang should build a large modern logistics channel with the basic support of railways. Xinjiang has a unique geographical location and is a large resource area in China. This has made Xinjiang cargo transport characterized by long distances, large transport volumes, and off-season seasons. It needs a logistics model that can be scaled up and normalized to adapt. Moreover, with the adjustment of industrial structure, the demand for railway logistics from industrial products will make the transportation capacity of railways into and out of Xinjiang tend to balance. The construction of a modern logistics channel with the basic support of railways is an important step for Xinjiang to achieve industrial restructuring and economic development. condition. Therefore, the construction of a large-scale railroad logistics corridor based on the Lanzhou-Xinjiang Railway as the trunk line connecting the main hubs of Urumqi and Xi’an and exerting its collection and distribution functions will connect the Central Asian region and Asia and Europe with more broad prospects for development.

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